Puppy Formula Recipe

The following recipe is used by many breeders. This formula is used as an aid during whelping and can be used as
a supplement during the nursing period. When large litters occur, (more puppies than mother has nipples), this
formula works well. Rotate pups so that each receives equal amounts of mother's milk and formula. Here again,
make notes on your note pad along side of each puppy, so you know who has had mom and who has not. This
formula is good, but it does not replace the nutrients and vitamins of mother's milk. So rotation between mom and
formula is vital for healthy puppies when you have large litters.

1 can evaporated milk
1 tbls. of Honey
1/4 cup of cold water with 2 packages of Knox gelatin
3 cups boiling water
2 egg yolks
1 tbls. heavy cream
Mix all ingredients in boiling water. Place in covered bowl and baby bottles. Heat in saucepan of water on the
stove, DO NOT MICROWAVE.
Store unused formula in refrigerator in a sealed bowl. You may want to fill spare baby bottles and keep them
refrigerated also. Formula gels when cold, but will return to liquid when heating in a pan of water on the stove. Be
sure to check temperature of heated formula as you would with regular baby formula. Squirt a small amount on
the inside of your wrist. If it is room temp it is good. If it is hot to you, let it cool until it is room temp. At room
temperature you should not feel the squirt on you wrist. It will not feel hot nor cold, just wet.




Weaning off bitch to solid food:

When weaning puppies off of mother onto solid food, grind Puppy food into a fine powder at first, then more
coarse as you go. Add this ground up Puppy food to enough warm formula to make it the consistency of oatmeal.
You may want to place this in a bowl and feed puppies separately. This is to verify that each pup receives equal
feedings. Your lighter (under weight) puppies may need more to help add more body weight. (See above photo)
Also. Check with your vet. Many breeders and vets feel that Puppy food contains too much fat and proteins for a
constant diet. Many breeders will use puppy food during this ground up stage, but will switch to regular dog food
when weaning off of the ground up food to solid food.

TIPS ON RAISING PUPPIES

Many dog breeders believe that a puppy is born with twenty-five percent, (25%) of their temperament. The other
seventy-five percent, (75%) will develop, and be largely determined by what happens to them during their first
eight weeks of life. This is why it is so important to give each puppy in a litter the best possible chance at a full,
normal and healthy life by helping to develop a good and positive temperament. This can be accomplished
through proper training during their first weeks of life, while still with the breeder.

Dogs with well rounded temperaments will make better companions, both as pets and as show dogs. Puppies sent
to their new homes with good temperaments, have the least likely chance of being returned to the breeder
because of problems like nipping, biting, and overall aggression.

The following tips, in chronological order of age, have been tested, and are being used by several breeders. The
methods herein have been proven, and will work on all puppies:

BIRTH TO 20 DAYS OF AGE ( 1 to 3 weeks):

At this age, all puppies need warmth, food, sleep and mother's massage.

Their mental capacity and trainability is virtually non-existant.

Puppies should receive very little handling by humans during this time period.

The puppies eyes should open in 10 to 14 days of age.

The puppies ears should open in 13 to 17 days of age.

21 TO 28 DAYS OF AGE ( 4th week):

Their needs are still warmth, food, sleep and their mother. Their mental capacity and senses will start functioning,
and they will possess functional awareness. Their trainability is very slight during the fourth week and they are
vulnerable to unsettling influences. Socialization begins:

SOCIALIZATION BEGINS: (Picking up Puppies)

BEWARE ! First of all. Have everyone that enters your home, or building where puppies are kept, have
everyone remove their shoes at the door. People do not know WHAT they might have stepped into and WHAT
may still be on their shoes. All kinds of diseases can be tranmitted this way. Contaminated dog feces stuck on a
shoe, then brought into your home,  can cause several diseases. Of which,  the most deadly disease to a pup at
this age is Parvo. So as a precaution, have everyone entering the building remove their shoes at the door. ALSO.
Have each person that will handle puppies wash their hands before picking up any puppies.

Each puppy within a litter should be held by a human everyday. Different humans of all sizes and ages. This will
provide each pup with the security of bonding and teach them NOT to be afraid of people.  Their socialization
begins right now, (after their ears and eyes have opened), and should continue for the rest of their lives. This
point cannot be stressed too much to the breeder as well as to the new puppy buyers. Socialize - Socialize -
Socialize ! !

LOUD NOISES: (22nd day)
("Sound Sensitivity Training for Puppies" CD is available) Click here
Make as much noise as possible. Bang and/or throw pots and pans, run the vacuum, drop things. Get them used
to loud noises now so that they will NOT be frightened of loud noises throughout their lives.

Metal measuring spoons on a ring will help to develop puppy's sensitivity to noise and to touch. Have one or two
sets to throw into whelping box. It will provide a source of noise for them to get used to as well as serving as play
time and will introduce them to picking up metal objects without fear.

21 to 28 days of age: ( 3rd to 4th week )

Weaning puppies off of mother onto solid food usually happens at 3 to 4 weeks. Again, check with your vet for a
preference. A combination of formula and ground Puppy Food is used by many breeders. ( Recipe can be found on
Formula page, page 5 )

29 to 49 days of age: ( 5 to 7 weeks ) (If not already done, do a 5th week worming of pups)

Puppy's needs will include canine socialization, (intra-litter), as well as human socialization. At this stage their
trainability is almost fully developed. They will respond to vocalizations and they will have the ability to recognize
individual humans. This is their first awareness of the difference between dogs and humans. They may start their
individual investigations into the world around them.

During this stage, each puppy in the litter will start to find it's place in the pecking order. Each must learn to
compete with littermates:

BEAN BAG CHAIR:

Let the puppies play on this. Place one pup in the middle, on top. Then place all other puppies around the bottom.
This is "king of the castle" type of playing. Each pup will try to remove the one at the top and each will have their
turn on the top. All of them will have the chance to be "king". After several of these "king of the castle" play
periods, the natural pecking order should start to round out. This will provide confidence to each puppy and
lessen the chance of having one or two dominent puppies. Each one will have the chance to vent the same
aggressions as "king".

GARBAGE CAN LIDS: (Rubbermaid type - upside down)

While puppies are outdoors, place the garbage can lid on the ground, upside down. The rounded part touching the
ground will make the lid uneasy, tilting and teetering. After one pup gets in, several others will follow out of
curiousity. The lid may start to gently spin. It will turn out to be a game to them, and will serve as training in
unstable - uneven surfaces to walk on. It will also help them to develop balance and remove the fear of unstability.

UNEVEN BOARDS: ( 1 elevated slightly higher than the other)

Use 1 x 6's - 1 x 8's - 2 x 6's or 2 x 8's for this. Place each board next to each other, so they are touching for the
entire length of the boards. Have the puppies walk on these. As the above exercise, this will provide confidence
and lessen the fear of uneven surfaces.

BOOKS: ( paperbacks piled 1 foot high )

As puppies play on and around these piles of books, the falling books and the noise thereof, will teach the pups
NOT to be afraid of objects falling around them, objects falling on them or near to them. After several sessions,
the pups should be used to the tumblin objects and the noise. After a few sessions, some of them may not hide
from the initial scare, while it may take additional sessions for ALL to come out and play freely, on their own.
                                             
FOOD - TOYS - TREATS IN CRATES:

Place one of these items inside a crate with the door open. The puppies will enter and leave on their own just to
get at the object they love. This will remove all doubt as far as the "crate" being a "bad place". The puppies will
eventually develop a sense of pleasure being inside the crate. Some may not want to come out .

The 38th to 42nd day of age: ( 5-1/2 to 6 weeks of age )

Many breeders will crop the puppy's ears at the age of 5-1/2 to 6 weeks of age. At this age, the nerve endings in
the ears have not fully developed. This makes a better opportunity to lessen the pain and bleeding of the
operation. At this age, the amount of pain that the puppy feels is  fractional compared to waiting for an older age.
At 5-1/2 to 6 weeks of age, when puppies come out of the anesthetic, they have been witnessed to begin playing
with each other as if nothing has happened. An occasional pull on ones ear may invoke a yipe, but nothing
serious. And the bleeding is kept to a minimum, if at all.

However. You may want to check with your vet. Many vets will not perform surgery on a puppy under a certain
weight. Several vets connected to the breeders that have compiled this document, have set 6 pounds as their
minimum limit. Puppies 6 pounds and over can receive ear cropping. But check with your personal veterinarian.

The decision on when to crop your puppies is entirely up to each individual breeder. The times and weights for
such an operation, have been listed here as an aid. Many breeders use the 5-1/2 to 6 week period because of the
reasons stated here, less pain - less bleeding.

This time period, after ear cropping surgery at 5-1/2 to 6 weeks of age, is also used by many breeders as "car
ride" time. The puppies go to and from the vet for cropping in a vehicle, so after this time, breeders start the
"transportation" phase of puppy training.

With large litters, maybe 4 to 5 pups at a time, or all, divided into separate crates in a van. The reason some
breeders like to separate the pups during their rides, is to narrow down the field to find the ones that may get
"car sick". It is better to make "ride time" prior to meals. Once you know which pups get car sick, you may want
to increase "ride time" for these. But added ride time for all will not hurt.

After ear cropping surgery, the ears start to heal and the stitches are removed, many breeders start leash
training and housebreaking. If you have a large litter and these pups will be with you until they are 8 weeks old,
your spare time during the next 2 weeks, divided by the number of pups, will usually equal = No spare time !

Leash training begins with putting a leash on a puppy. And of course they will pull backwards and sit down. They
are puppies, and they have never seen a leash or had one put on them. Go through this step and let the puppy pull
and sit several times. Lesson one over. And so on, until all pups have had the opportunity to pull and sit on lead.
Lesson two and three may be the same. Depending on your pup's advancement, the next level is putting the leash
on and letting them drag it around with them. A short lead is used for this exercise. Yes they will chew on the lead,
and yes other pups will chew on it as it passes them on the ground. A chew mine - chew yours festival of dragging
leads. But it does get them used to having it around their neck and pulled on as other puppies step on it. As with
housebreaking, some breeders will divide the litter into groups and allow each group leash time - housebreaking
time, until all pups have received equal time at both.

All of the tips listed herein may differ from breeder to breeder. Especially with housebreaking. So use the method
that you feel comfortable with. The items are listed here to serve as a guide. To give you another perspective on
the tasks of raising puppies.

Many start housebreaking in the whelping box. Make the paper layer smaller and smaller. Be sure to make the
going outdoors to "potty" trips as soon as they awake in the morning and after naps. You really will not have too
much time for housebreaking at this stage, but at least the pups will be introduced to a routine.

The 49th day of age: ( 7 weeks old )

As close as possible to the puppy's 49th day, you may want to have a "Puppy Aptitude Test" (PAT). This test will
test each separate puppy on several different areas. The results will help the breeder's decision as to where each
puppy should be place and with what type of people.

A sample of the "Puppy Aptitude Test" (PAT), is available from this webpage owner by email. Make copies for
each puppy in your litter. Upon completion of the testing, breeders usually make 2 copies of all results, one copy
for the new owners, one copy for their litter books / records.

If you decide to schedule a "Puppy Aptitude Test" after reading the instructions, make sure that the tester has
had prior experience at this type of testing. If not, make sure that the designated person that will do the testing, is
as HONEST as can be. If you use a person that is kennel blind to your breeding, (knows or likes the litter, the
dam, the sire, the breeder), the results will NOT be of use to anyone. Kennel blind individuals will never be able
to see, much less mention and record, ANY visible faults. This testing is a vital tool for breeders to use,
especially when placing your puppies in their new homes. This placing is important ! It is for the pup's entire life !

50 to 84 days of age: ( 8 to 12 weeks )

8 to 10 weeks is a very important period for puppies. This is the "Fear Imprint" stage. Special care must be
taken not to frighten the puppies.

It is time for removal from the litter. The pups will no longer have a group of littermates to play with and learn
with. They will be going out on their own, by themselves, without the others.

Time for learning verbal commands like come - sit - stay, and especially the word "no". They are now old enough
to respect authority. They are capable of learning by association, capable of learning fetch games and capable to
form permanent bonds. Brainwave activity is recordable and the puppies now have the ability and confidence to
respond to gentle human commands. It is now time for supervised play time. Play time with children and all
persons entering their domain.

Here again you will find the slogan, Socialize - Socialize - Socialize !

Malicious or inadvertent hurting may leave long lasting or permanent impressions. Care must be taken to
prevent adverse conditioning. If a puppy is allowed to build confidence, it will become a more stable and more
reliable adult.

Puppies will now challenge their master for independence. But they are still sensitive to many influences. Praise
for correct responses and correct behavior. Light corrections, if any, can be given, but well balanced with praise
for specific desired behaviors. This will help to mold better attitudes toward everyone and everything in the
puppy's life. Make it a good fun time for your puppies.

85 to 112 days of age: ( 13 to 16 weeks )

PUPPY KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SHOULD BEGIN ! ! ! This is highly recommended for all puppies. Take
care and make sure that puppy has had all of the necessary shots.

16 WEEKS OF AGE AND THE REST OF THEIR LIFE:

SOCIALIZE - SOCIALIZE - SOCIALIZE ! Neighborhood walks and parks are excellent places.

We also ask that our puppy buyers postpone activities such as "Flyball" and "Frisbee" until their puppy is one
and a half to two (1-1/2 to 2) years of age. This should allow for the proper formation and maturity of bone joints,
the spine, the hips, etc., which may otherwise be stressed by such vigorous activities.

         (Copies of these "Whelping" pages are available from the owners of this website.)